The thesis of this paper is that specification and written prototype might be augmented by a visual representation of a project. This paper demonstrated that a 3D visual representation of a scenario, a medical software application aided in the development process, as evaluated by a panel of experts.
Söderman, M. (2005). Virtual reality in product evaluations with potential customers: An exploratory study comparing virtual reality with conventional product representations. Journal of engineering design, 16(3), 311-328.
This work deals with the virtual reality prototyping of an automotive model. It covers non-obvious drawbacks to this approach such as the effect of VR-naivete, or VR-novelty in evaluating products, where the resulting evaluation is more of the interface than of the product. Methodologically, the paper used semantic content analysis of user reviews of the prototype to assess the value of the input.
Pérez, F., & Valderas, P. (2009). Allowing end-users to actively participate within the elicitation of pervasive system requirements through immediate visualization. Paper presented at the Requirements Engineering Visualization (REV), 2009 Fourth International Workshop on.
This paper discusses a real-time system for visualizing requirements during the elicitation phase, emphasizing the importance of user interaction and feedback during this phase of development. A prototype tool was developed that allows visual interaction between the user and the engineer in developing requirements.
Escalona, M. J., & Koch, N. (2004). Requirements engineering for web applications-a comparative study. J. Web Eng., 2(3), 193-212.
This paper covers standard techniques for requirements engineering in the context of a web application, such as: interviewing, storyboarding, use case modeling, and concept mapping.
Gabrysiak, G., Giese, H., & Seibel, A. (2009, 1-1 Sept. 2009). Interactive Visualization for Elicitation and Validationn of Requirements with Scenario-Based Prototyping. Paper presented at the Requirements Engineering Visualization (REV), 2009 Fourth International Workshop on.
This is a straightforward position paper on the value of requirements prototypes in the elicitation and validation process. It is based on the thesis that 1) Users are extremely valid sources of requirements, 2) formal requirements models are insufficient tools for communicating with users. 3) Visualizations and prototypes combined with formal models are useful tools. It introduces the role of "requirements animator", IE maker of prototypes, or visual developer. The pathways discussed for the contribution of visual prototypes are: Validation of the total system specification (IE acceptance of prototype), tracing of used execution paths, versus non-useful ones, resolution of conflicting requirements...etc.
Warfel, T. Z. (2009). Prototyping: a practitioner's guide: Rosenfeld media.
Stone, R. J., Panfilov, P. B., & Shukshunov, V. E. (2011, 9-11 June 2011). Evolution of aerospace simulation: From immersive Virtual Reality to serious games. Paper presented at the Recent Advances in Space Technologies (RAST), 2011 5th International Conference on.
A review of serious game (SG) and Virtual reality (VR) projects in aerospace, drawing some interesting conclusions about virtual simulation: 1) The capacity to quickly prototype environments is valuable, built on pre-existing models. 2) There is an enhanced capacity for retention of information in VR. 3) cost effective 4) model quality is paramount for evaluation of model, not rendering system. (see Soderman paper)
Lowe, D., & Eklund, J. (2002). Client needs and the design process in web projects. J. Web Eng., 1(1), 23-36.
The thesis of this paper is that clients will develop their software requirements as they see designs, not a priori. Rather than answering the question "does this design meet the needs of...", we present designs in the context of the technological possibilities, and expanding and clarifying the goals of the project. This is a process centered on helping the client understand what they need, and then articulating it in a design. XP does this woven into the build, but this article suggests early stage prototyping as a way of evolving the requirements pre-build.
Witmer, B. G., & Singer, M. J. (1998). Measuring presence in virtual environments: A presence questionnaire. Presence-Teleoperators and Virtual Environments, 7(3), 225-240. doi: 10.1162/105474698565686
"Presence is defined as the subjective experience of being in one place or environment, even when one is physically situated in another." This paper theorizes about the factors contributing to presence, and lays out an empirical measure for evaluating a users experience therein.
Chung, L., Nixon, B., Yu, E., & Mylopoulos, J. (2000). Non-functional requirements. Software Engineering.
Mathematically f(x) = y is a transformation that says nothing about the time it takes to perform the operation, or other qualitative aspects to the process. (user experience, aesthetic quality, level of frustration, reliability, portability..etc) NFR covers these requirements.
Farhat, S., Simco, G., & Mitropoulos, F. J. (2009). Refining and reasoning about nonfunctional requirements. Paper presented at the Proceedings of the 47th Annual Southeast Regional Conference.
Classifies NFR's as Functionally Restrictive( FR-NFR: example, performance WRT memory usage), Additive Restrictive (AF-NFR: example, encryption), Policy Restrictive (PF-NFR: example, survivability), Architecture Restrictive (ArR-NFR: example, address system operation in a limited environment). note: do these come from Chung's original paper?
Anderson, R. J. (1994). Representations and requirements: The value of ethnography in system design. Human-computer interaction, 9(3), 151-182.
Kaindl, H., Kramer, S., & Kacsich, R. (1998, 6-10 1998). A case study of decomposing functional requirements using scenarios. Paper presented at the Requirements Engineering, 1998. Proceedings. 1998 Third International Conference on.
Dourish, P. (2006). Implications for design. Paper presented at the Proceedings of the SIGCHI conference on Human Factors in computing systems.
Guo, J., Wang, Y., Zhang, Z., Nummenmaa, J., & Niu, N. (2012). Model-driven approach to developing domain functional requirements in software product lines. Software, IET, 6(4), 391-401. doi: 10.1049/iet-sen.2010.0072
Hughes, J., O'Brien, J., Rodden, T., Rouncefield, M., & Sommerville, I. (1995). Presenting ethnography in the requirements process. Paper presented at the Requirements Engineering, 1995., Proceedings of the Second IEEE International Symposium on.
Viller, S., & Sommerville, I. (1999). Social analysis in the requirements engineering process: from ethnography to method. Paper presented at the Requirements Engineering, 1999. Proceedings. IEEE International Symposium on.
Yi, J. S., ah Kang, Y., Stasko, J. T., & Jacko, J. A. (2007). Toward a deeper understanding of the role of interaction in information visualization. Visualization and Computer Graphics, IEEE Transactions on, 13(6), 1224-1231.
Gabbard, J. L., & Swan, J. E. (2008). Usability Engineering for Augmented Reality: Employing User-Based Studies to Inform Design. Visualization and Computer Graphics, IEEE Transactions on, 14(3), 513-525. doi: 10.1109/TVCG.2008.24